The agricultural revolution, industrial revolution, and technical revolution are steps towards sustainable development in Africa

Shawgei Salah Ahmed

The beginning of human civilization dates back to the period when plant seeds began to be planted. And those seeds germinated and turned into grains, which are the vital and basic source of food. With this development, man has become in a state of stability after he remained for thousands of years hunting game to get his food, followed by the spread and replacement of manual labor with mechanization. During the eighteenth century, the countries of Western Europe witnessed a comprehensive scientific renaissance.

Researches and experiments diversified to include various branches of science and lead to important inventions and discoveries that were the direct cause of the industrial revolution during the nineteenth century. It is a revolution that had a profound impact on economic, social, and political life, whether in Europe or outside it. The twentieth century after the Second World War witnessed the comprehensive changes demonstrated by digital computing and communication technologies during and after the second half of the twentieth century. Similar to the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution of the past, the digital revolution marked the beginning of the information age.

A – Agriculture is a strong base for any development in Africa

Africa is the first continent in the world in terms of the area of ​​agricultural land, where the volume of arable land is more than 60% of the total land around the world and at the level of the continent, agricultural land constitutes about 35% of the total area of ​​the continent. In terms of soil, the continent has different levels and types of Rich soil, as well as diverse agricultural seasons, Despite the huge areas of agricultural land and the quality of agricultural land, Africa achieves only 25% of its agricultural consumption by 7% in the field of agriculture of all kinds of productivity, where 179 million hectares are cultivated with field crops and about 14 million hectares of tree crops, which constitutes only a Few of Africa’s agricultural potential, due to many reasons, including the poor distribution of agricultural land, the inability of young people to easily obtain agricultural land areas, as well as the difficulty of obtaining the necessary financing for agricultural activity.

B – Industry and agriculture-based manufacturing are priorities for sustainable development in Africa:

African economies accelerated in the middle of the second millennium after spending decades of slow progress, but what lies ahead for the African continent is not a smooth path. If Africa wants to become the next engine of emerging markets that promotes global economic growth, it must move forward towards industrial development, economists agree that Light industries that require large labor such as the manufacture of textiles, clothing, shoes, and related tools and machines have played a large role in increasing the national income, Africa is in dire need of an industrial revolution if it wants to provide jobs for the increasing numbers of young people among the population and reduce the pressures of migration and some of the building blocks are known They are efficient and trustworthy administrative institutions, modern infrastructure and education.

C – The localization of technology and business computing is the only way to sustainable development:

According to 2016 data, from the International Telecommunication Union, (ITU), 80.8% of Africans have a mobile phone, mobile phones can successfully transform Africa because they serve as the main access to the Internet, right on track by the government and private companies in Africa in Building the right foundations, the Internet will transform sectors as diverse as healthcare, agriculture, and retail and contribute about $300 billion to Africa’s GDP annually by 2025. (McKinsey Global Institute, (MGI, Black Going Digital) report), for example, the digital revolution reduces the negative surprise and shock to farmers, access to weather forecasts and market information through modern technology introduces farmers to the right information; Farmers make decisions about which plant, what crops to grow, and where to sell the crops.

Where do we find Africa from the evolutionary revolutions of the world?

It is worth noting that, the first industrial revolution used the energy of water and steam to mechanize production; the second revolution used electric power to facilitate access to mass production. The third revolution used electronics and information technology to run production. The world is now witnessing a fourth industrial revolution; The digital revolution that has occurred since the middle of the last century, characterized by a mixture of technologies that cross the lines between the physical, digital, and biological domains.

Agriculture and drones, as some estimates indicate that the food and agricultural sector will be the second-largest user of drones in the world in the next five years, and the FAO has already used drones in many countries to collect in-depth data on Real-time reporting on food and agricultural challenges such as natural disaster risks ، The African Report reviewed the ten technologies that Africa can use in the digital economy; including cybersecurity, cloud computing, massive information analytics, blockchains, Internet of things, 3D printing, biotechnology, robotics, energy storage, and intelligence. Synthetic.

Research and reports predict that by 2030, after 10 years, AI alone will add more than $15.7 trillion to global GDP, $6.6 trillion in productivity increases, and 9.1 trillion Not only that, but studies issued by the International Telecommunication Union indicate that, moreover, the technological development accompanying this phenomenon, which will allow people and artificial intelligence to work together to stimulate performance “will generate $ 2.9 trillion of The value of the employed business adds up to 6.2 billion productive hours of workers globally.”

In the end, we can refer to a report entitled “Government Readiness Index for Artificial Intelligence for the year 2019.” This index included 194 countries to measure their readiness to use artificial intelligence. This index consists of 11 measures that are used to measure four basic areas: governance, infrastructure And data, skills, education, and finally government and public services, in light of this report, it was expected that artificial intelligence technologies will add about $15 trillion to the global economy. According to this indicator, the governments of the North will be the biggest beneficiary of the gains of this revolution compared to the countries of the South. So always there are renewed fears that the countries of the South in general, and African countries in particular, will fall behind in pursuing this revolution.

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