Indicators of Sustainable Development in Africa: Failures and some Successes

Shawgei Salah Ahmed

To begin with, there is basic information about the extreme outperformance of development indicators in Africa.
The per capita gross national income in the richest countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is 83 times higher than the per capita gross national income in the poorest countries of the region; Nigeria is the most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa (154.7 million people) and is home to 18 percent of the continent’s total population.

Seychelles’ rate of cell phones is 1049 phones per thousand people, compared to 28 phones per thousand people in Eritrea. As such, they represent the highest and lowest in the region in terms of cell phone penetration per thousand people.

In sub-Saharan Africa, improved sanitation is only available to about 24 percent of the rural population compared to 42 percent of the urban population.

Between 2000 and 2009; Rwanda and Uganda recorded the largest gains in life expectancy at birth, increasing by 8 years and 7 years, respectively.

In contrast, life expectancy at birth decreased by 5 years in Lesotho, and 4 years in South Africa and Swaziland. In 21 percent of sub-Saharan Africa, one or two products account for at least 75 percent of total exports.
Rwanda has the largest number of women parliamentarians, holding 56 percent of the seats, while Comoros has the lowest percentage; sitting at 3 percent.

The countries most receiving official development assistance in sub-Saharan Africa received 165 times more amounts than the least recipient countries. The largest recipient of aid in Ethiopia, and the least likely to be Seychelles.
Child mortality in the Republic of the Congo rose by 21 percent between 1990 and 2009; the largest increase in the region. Madagascar, on the other hand, witnessed a 60 percent decline.

In the mid-1980s, more than 80 percent of sub-Saharan Africa was ruled by authoritarian regimes. By the year 2009, however, democracies had been established in more than half of the countries in the region.

Curves of sustainable development in Africa

Despite the abundance of natural resources, Africa is still the poorest and most backward of the world’s continents.

This is due to a set of reasons that may include the spread of deadly diseases and viruses (particularly HIV / AIDS and malaria), as well as corrupt governments that often commit serious violations of human rights, as well as failure in central planning, high levels of Illiteracy, lack of access to foreign capital, and frequent tribal and military conflicts (from guerrilla warfare to genocide).

According to the ‘Human Development Report 2003” issued by the United Nations, the twenty-five lowest ranking countries (from the one hundred and fifty-one country to the one hundred seventy-fifth) are African countries.

A large proportion of the African continent’s population is affected by poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, inadequate water supply, and sanitation, as well as poor health.

In August 2008, the World Bank announced that global poverty estimates were revised according to the new global poverty line, which is that the per capita share of $ 1.25 per day (as opposed to the previous measure of $1.00) was 80.5% of the population of the Southern region.

Sub-Saharan Africa lived on less than $ 2.50 (purchasing power parity) a day in 2005 compared to 85.7% of the Indian population. The new figures confirm that sub-Saharan Africa was the least successful region in the world in terms of poverty reduction ($ 1.25 per day).

About 50% of the population was suffering from poverty in 1981 (200 million people), and this figure rose to 58% in 1996 before declining to 50% in 2005 (380 million people).

The average income of a poor person in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated at only 70 cents per day. The region became poorer in 2003 than it was in 1973, indicating an increase in poverty in some regions.

Some of these matters are due to the failure of the economic liberalization programs led by foreign companies and governments. However, other studies and reports mention poor local government policies more than external factors.

Light at the end of the tunnel

In Nigeria, the economy achieved its fastest growth in more than three years, and growth is expected to rise further this year thanks to strong capital investment and consumer spending, thanks in large part to the promotion of the non-oil economic activity.

Bumper Harvest Agricultural production, which is responsible for 18% of the country’s GDP and nearly a third of employment, both in industrial and service output, has been boosted by gains in the manufacturing and telecommunications sectors, respectively.

The recent economic reforms of the President of South Africa, Cyril Ramaphosa, are expected to contribute to creating a recovery in the short term, as the gross domestic product is $ 349.299 billion, according to data from the International Monetary Fund in 2017.

The data also revealed that the country’s GDP grew by 1.3%, slightly higher than the National Ministry of Finance forecast of 1.0%.

However, the main downside risks and a downgrade by Moody’s Analytics credit rating continues to lead to a large-scale capital outflow ،However, there are expectations by Focus Economics analysts that growth rates will increase by 1.6% in 2019 and 1.9% in 2020.

Despite the recent conflicts that Angola is witnessing with the global oil market, it is considered one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with a gross domestic product of $ 124.209 billion in 2017.

Despite the contraction that Angola experienced last year by 2.4%, ongoing economic reforms, supported by the support of the International Monetary Fund, are expected to support the growth of investment activity in 2019, as GDP is expected to grow by 1.2% in 2019 and 2.3% in 2020.

Ghana’s economy is expected to register a growth of 8.3 percent in 2018, which is higher than the 6.8 percent projected growth in the government’s budget. The primary commodity-exporting country is in the final year of a $ 918 million aid program with the International Monetary Fund aimed at raising growth and reducing public debt and inflation. The President of Ghana pledged to continue reforming the economy to make Ghana less dependent on aid.

In the end, the African continent can shift towards stable development policies if the following points are taken care of, literacy for members of the different classes in Africa, especially the poor ones, in addition to developing education and curricula to support the requirements necessary for individuals to become productive in society.

Such requirements entail teaching technical and vocational skills that meet the needs of the labor market, directing economic and development policies towards developing and supporting small enterprise systems, to absorb the surplus labor that this continent suffers from.

There is also improving health services for all groups and classes of society, development, and support of social values ​​in the hearts of members of a single community, stimulating large and medium enterprises so that they play their social and developmental role in a way that guarantees the improvement of life for all segments of society.

Political empowerment of the poor by increasing their political awareness and activating their role in participating in political elections and engaging in political currents that aims to achieve development in African societies.

Back to top button