Sudan at Stake!

Omer B. Abu Haraz

Historically, since the independence of Sudan in 1956, not a single coup attempt succeeded in ousting a governing military regime. All Successful military coups were against the civilian democratic rule.

The first successful military coup was staged by the chief in command of the army General Ibrahim Abboud and the top brass of the army against the democratically elected Umma Party government led by Abdallah Khalil. Abboud rule (1958 – 1964) was removed by the first popular uprising of October 21, 1964. During Abboud military 6-years rule only one military coup attempt was staged by middle ranks officers led by Colonel Ali Hamid and other officers. It failed and its leaders were executed after a verdict from a high military court.

The second successful military coup was in May 1969 led by Colonel Nimeiri and other low-rank officers. It succeeded in ousting a democratically elected Umma Party government led by M. Ahmed Al-Mahgoub. It stayed in power till April 1985. During its 16 years rule, three failed coup attempts were quelled. The first was in July 1971 led by the Communist {arty. All leaders of the failed coup – military and civilians were executed few hours after the verdict of High Summary Field Military Courts. The second failed military coup was on September 5, 1995, led by Lt. Col, Hassan Hussein, and other officers. All were executed in the Artillery H.Q. in Atbara. The third failed attempt was in 1976 led by Brig. Mohammed Nour Saad and troops of opposition parties infiltrated Libya. Saad and leaders of the failed coup were executed after verdicts from military courts.

Nimierii military regime was ousted by the second popular revolution of April 6, 1985. Three civilian democratically elected governments followed the elapse of a one-year transitional hybrid governance-military and civilian – All three governments were led by El-Sadiq El-Mahdi, Umma Party leaders, from 1986 – June 30, 1989, when ousted by the Islamic military coup of June 30, 1989, staged by the Sudanese Islamic Movement. It stayed in power for 30 years and was ousted by the gallant peaceful revolution of December 2018 led by the Sudanese Professional Association (ASP) with millions of people especially youth who flooded the streets of Khartoum and all towns of Sudan which culminated in a historic sit-in around the army H.Q on April 6, 2019, after which the army top brass aligned with the revolutionaries ousting the longest military rule in Sudan on April 1, 2019.

During the military long rule of the Islamic Movement headed by Brig. Omer Al-Bashir, only one military coup attempt was staged by Maj. Gen. (Pilot) Khalid El-Zein and 27 other officers. It was quelled few hours and all coup leaders were executed after very speedy unjust, inhumane field military courts.

This narration shows that all military coups against military rule failed. It also shows that in the past transitional periods there were no coup attempts. The two transitional periods were run peacefully and successfully till the general elections. This third transitional hybrid rule, amazingly enough, experienced two military failed coup attempts. What makes the declared attempts weird is that none of the involved officers in the first attempts (almost 18 months ago) is tried till now. The second attempt of last week did not receive an unequivocal condemnation from the military partner of the transitional period. On the contrary, it turned to very hostile rhetoric by the President of the Sovereign Council and his deputy (both are military) against the civilian partners. This rhetoric precariously and dreadfully widened the rift between the two partners.

The international community promptly reacted by strong statements from Troika, UNSC, and America separately although it is a Troika member.

The international community re-instated their full support to the revolutionaries and the safe transition to a full-fledged civilian rule. The condemnation included a strong clear warning to the military partners urging it to completely refrain from any set-back attempt to turn Sudan back to any form of military rule.

So, if the tug-of-war between the two partners continues leading to the creation of a situation in Sudan that threatens international security and peace, Sudan’s situation will then be promoted to Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Now in Chapter VI) which means a likely engagement of international troops.

So, Sudan now is at stake!

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