Technology Transfer is the Fastest Way to Achieve Sustainable Development; the African Case
By: Shawgei Salah Ahmed
The united nations focused on harnessing science technology for development in a wide range of new and emerging technologies that can contribute to addressing sustainable development issues such as; reducing poverty, protecting the planet, and managing risk climate and natural hazards, and promoting gender equality gender and conflict prevention. In the field of investigation Food security and the fight against hunger, the committee noted that biotechnology and synthetic come in Introduction to emerging technologies some have proven technologies, such as artificial intelligence and data robotics, 3D printing, its feasibility in many pilot projects that launched in the field of sustainable development in some developing and least developed countries You have used the data.
Massive e-waste treatment in China, and in reducing pollution and easing traffic congestion in Bangladesh, and in mobilizing new sources of financing such as generating seed capital to support solar energy in Burkina Faso new technology allows and emerging markets, especially those dependent on technology digital, reducing production costs and saving products and services at lower prices that suit the needs of the poor, helping the public sector reduce spending and increase Investment return, as for information and communication technology.
Global experiences, models for the application of sustainable development in Africa:
China, whose national innovation system is based on a task-oriented approach, has achieved Inspire priority areas, success China has used the “863 Program” as a tool and many countries in the world have adopted this approach. It allowed the intensification of innovation efforts and directing them towards development through the development of advanced technologies identified by the National Intermediate Plan and long-term development of science and technology in China within the framework of the Tenth Five-Year Plan of 2005 National plan Strengthening China’s innovative capabilities in a wide range of high-tech areas, including technology Information and communication, biotechnology, advanced agricultural technology, advanced materials technology, advanced manufacturing, automation, energy technology, environment, and resource conservation.
Turkey has recently started to adopt the task-oriented approach after the adoption of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy, developed by the Higher Council for Science and Technology-2016 for the period 2011, A transformation occurred (Tubitak) My concepts in Turkey towards From the bottom, the task-oriented approach, after the funding of all research projects was given to researchers as a starting point and following their desires. The objectives of the national strategy revolved around spreading a culture of multilateral and multidisciplinary cooperation in the field of Research and development, stimulating research and development at the sectoral and regional level, and engaging small and medium-sized enterprises of volume targets in the national innovation system. And achieve strategy; adopt a mission-oriented approach to research and development, the need-oriented approach in urgent areas, the bottom-up approach in basic science research Applied and pioneering.
Technology, customs, and traditions in Africa, which are more effective in development?
We need innovative thinking to achieve global goals, but the critical role of politics must be brought back into the debate about what technologies can and cannot do. These technologies will not replace the lack of political will to tackle poverty or harmful social norms. Policies are just as important as innovation because the right policy environments will ensure the success of efforts to achieve global goals, including those related to technology. Proper implementation of policies helps to identify the investment mechanisms that states and private actors use to achieve policy objectives. This applies to technology policies as much as to policies aimed at equitable social and economic development. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to policy reform; Context-specific challenges to drive inclusive and sustainable development through new and existing technologies must be appreciated.
In the end, recommendations for decision-makers:
First of all, Policies based on a mission-oriented innovation approach require that they are systemic policies patriotism regional and global, inclusive and systemic thinking of governments, and Involve owner’s interest, particularly the private sector and researchers Academics, in discussion to set priorities and draw policy baselines. Ambitious policies should be developed to solve the identified problems and provide the necessary means for their implementation by coordinating efforts among stakeholders and enhancing trust between them and provide the necessary funding to implement important innovations.
Secondly .task-oriented innovation requires that R&D programs, at least in some R&D centers, be directed towards research associated with the task in question, and allocate the necessary budgets to achieve advanced research results, and then translate them into solutions advanced applications.
Thirdly, task-oriented innovation requires decision-makers to acquire an entrepreneurial, risk-taking mindset and engage in new areas outside the limits imposed by market structures.
Fourthly, it is necessary to integrate the private sector in this type of innovation through the development of incentive tax policies in the field of research and development such as exemption from taxes or benefiting from funding allocated to scientific research programs at the national level or regional or international; the task-oriented innovation approach is an expensive and high-risk investment. Therefore, the public sector should play a role.
Fifthly, requires implementation entrepreneur in the financing, particularly in the early stages when the private sector is reluctant to participate;
Sixthly, governments should make available to non-state actors, including individuals, civil society organizations, and the business sector, Ways to participate in international programs, initiatives, and global partnerships in the field of innovation, especially those linked to sustainable development.