Out of the Box Exit

Omer Abu- Haraz
Power and authority are two elements of non-homogeneous mixture in the glass of water and oil. The glass is the state, water is the power and oil is the authority.
Authority is the civilian governance floating on the power. The non-homogeneous mixture cannot be changed to a homogenous solution of the two elements. The only way of making an unstable solution is when the glass is vigorously shaken by a military coup which keeps agitating the country by coup decrees which confiscate freedom and mask stability and development.
Historically power in Sudan intervened since 1898 in governance changing four regimes.
In 1898 the power of the British Army invaded Sudan conquering the Mahdia regime (1885 – 1898) and ruling Sudan to 1956. The British were wise when keeping the mixture in the glass intact-power at the bottom and authority at the top. Civilian authority ruled Sudan for 58 years transforming it into a model civilized country. Highly qualified civilian administrators set workable regional governance in 6 states in the North and 3 in the South.
Native administration of the different tribes were the backbone of governance. They helped in maintaining and sustaining the traditions and norms of the tribes. They were granted judicial authorities in special national courts. The British built hospitals, schools, universities. They founded sound infrastructure of roads, bridges, communications, railways, post service, electricity and clean water networks in some areas of the country. In 1953 they started the first steps of relinquishing power and authority to the Sudanese by conducting general elections which led to the formation of the first Sudanese democratically elected government headed by the national leader of the National Unionist Party (NUP) Ismail El-Azhari as the first Sudanese prime minister elected by the parliament of the 1953 elections.
In 1956 the British fully relinquished rule and left . Azhari was succeeded by the Umma Party prime minister, Abdalla Khalil in 1957. Abdalla Khalil for fear of losing his post in the parliament session of November 17, 1958 asked, in his capacity as Minister of defence, the army commander-in-chief General Ibrahim Abboud to take over on the allegation that the county is threatened by invasion of a neighbouring country (Egypt). General Abboud and his top brass ruled for 6 years. Like the British, the army did not shake the glass of water and oil. They formed a civilian technocrat government floating on the surface of the army power.
Abboud regime succeeded in maintaining the strong and efficient civil service. This in turn paved the way of improving the infrastructure, agricultural schemes, the industry, education, healthcare and the regional governance.
Abboud regime was ousted by a popular uprising of October 1964 which was sparked by the killing of a student of University of Khartoum when the police force resorted to excessive use of force in dispersing a peaceful rally about the problem of South Sudan.
Abboud peacefully relinquished rule to civilians without any blood-shed confrontations.
Abboud coup was succeeded by two unfortunate coups of May 1969 and June 1989. Both coups kept shaking the glass of the mixture by the direct involvement of the army (power) in governance (authority.
They both failed to make a homogenous solution of the two immiscible elements (water and oil) which is power and authority. Both regimes were ousted by popular uprising in April 1985 and April 2019.
Since April 2019 the glass of the mixture – oil and water – (authority and power) is sustained in a dreadful shaking in an attempt to make an impossible solution of two immiscible elements – army and civilians – (power and authority).
Now the crisis reached the climax and cannot be resolved by either a compromise or integration. The only left means of resolving conflict is domination. The incumbent military rulers have to dominate one side over the other by:
Accepting and adopting the Constitutional Document Draft of the Sudanese Bar Association.
Forming non-partisan government of technocrats.
Adopting presidential system of governance and conducting general presidential elections after one year. The tenure of the elected president to be only two years with specific terms of reference –conduct parliamentary general election – The parliament members to negotiate and adopt a permanent constitution – whether presidential or parliamentary –
This completes the transition civilian rule.

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